Tourism and Environment
Tourism is one of the huge, diffuse worldwide industry. Environmental features are little studied, with around 1,500 publications altogether. However, the influence ranges from global participation to climate transformation and water pollution to localized impacts on endangered plant and animal species in protected regions. Environmental management is restricted more by absence of adoption than by absence of technology. Government law is more effective than industry-based Eco certification. In developing states, tourism can play crucial role to preservation by offering political and financial maintenance for public protected area agencies and for conservation on private and publicly owned domains. This is significant in the construction of resilience to climate transformation. In developed states, such impacts are overshadowed by the influences of recreational utilization and by political pressures from tourism property makers. These collaboration demands research in both natural and social sciences. Research priorities comprises more sophisticated recreation ecology as well as lawful and social agendas for conservation tourism
With numerous evidences and reports, it is very clear to say that tourism has laid huge pressure on local land use, that has ultimately resulted in soil erosion, increased pollution, natural habitat loss, and increased pressure on endangered species around the globe. These mounting pressures are said to gradually damage to the environmental resources upon which tourism is itself relied. Many tourism businesses and organizations, as well as government agencies with their special share in revenue generated from tourism give no consideration to the negative consequences that arises due to extreme level of poorly managed tourism. The negative environmental effects of tourism are significant. They comprise of the depletion of local natural resources as well as pollution and waste problems. Tourism usually puts pressure on natural resources via over-consumption, mainly in those locations where resources are already found in scarcity.
World Tourism Day
In many parts of the world, World Tourism Day is celebrated with the intention to cultivate and spread consciousness among the society regarding the significance of tourism, and it’s social, political, financial and also cultural worth and value. The occasion tries to address common difficulties stated by the United Nations of Millennium Development Goals. It is also to feature and recognize the commitment the tourism industry can make in achieving these objectives. On September 27th, 1970, the Special Assembly meeting was held by the International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO) in the Mexico City. The meeting was held with the purpose to adopt the regulations of the World Tourism Organization. After the exact ten years, in the year 1980, this crucial day was officially documented as World Tourism Day.
Referring to the history, the traces of history can be found back from the Shulgi era in Ancient China, when emperors use to face great difficulties in safeguarding the routes and create waystations for the travelers. Later in the Middle Ages, the traveling was considered as more important event for most of the religious including Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. People associated with these religions had to travel in great distances due to pilgrimage traditions, mainly with the purpose to improve health and spiritual values
Environmental impacts of tourism
The reports on tourism have proved that in current times, tourism industry is the fastest growing industry around the globe that effectively facilitates the economy of any country. Not only limited to the economy, but the tourism industry has also played crucial role on the environmental side too. Tourism possess great capacity to assist enhancing communities and prompt positive environmental change among people. Tourism progression can also pressure on natural resources when it enhances consumption in those locations where resources are already scarce. Tourism is generally considered as a benefit to a region’s economy. It offers prosperity to the region and caters employment to the residents of the region. Though, when tourism results in unsustainability of nature, it may turn into terrible consequences on the environment.
It has been reported that national and international travelling have dramatically increased since almost five decades. According to the research based on environment and tourism, it has been revealed that consistent increase in transportation by air, road and rail for tourism has hugely enhanced the percentage of pollution where the global air passengers have reportedly increased from 88 million in 1972 to 344 million in 1994. It is obvious that huge number of tourists when engaged, it always leads to a larger use of the transportation system. The important fact that needs to e consider here is that emissions from automobiles and airplanes are one of the biggest causes of air pollution. When these modes of transport are utilized by a large number of tourists, it ultimately pollutes the air both locally and worldwide.
Sewage generated by tourists
It is observed that construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities have been increased keeping in view the progressing of the local and international tourism that has eventually resulted in increased sewage pollution. Waste water has always contaminated seas and lakes nearby tourist attractions, destructing the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff results in serious destruction to coral reefs as it arouses the growth of algae, that cover the filter-feeding corals and impeding their ability to survive. Transformation in salinity and siltation can have extensive effects on coastal environments. In addition to that, sewage pollution can be a great risk to the health of humans and animals.
Noise pollution is another major issue of recent times. Most of the recreational vehicles such as snowmobiles and jet skis together with the airplanes, cars, and buses have hugely contributed in noise pollution. Tourists transportation that enters and leaves the natural spots makes a lot of noise. Such noise distresses the wildlife of the nearby areas. In addition to that, loud music played by tourists in forested areas is also one of the important factors behind the sufferings of the animals living in the surrounding. Frequently, noise that is produced by the tourist activities for extended duration can bring changes in the natural activity patterns of animals.